- Low risk
- Moderate risk
- High risk
Typhoid is an infection caused by the bacterium,salmonella typhi and salmonella paratyphi. The infection causes inflammation of the liver, headache, fever, confusion and abdominal pain. It can be fatal if medical attention is not sought immediately. Typhoid is highly contagious and is transmitted through infected water which has been contaminated by faeces or eating infected foods. It is also passed through flies that have had contact with human faeces, which then go on to contaminate food.
Where is typhoid found?
Typhoid is found throughout the world particularly in countries where hygiene and sanitation is poor particularly parts of Africa, Central and South America, India, South East Asia and Middle East.
You can prevent getting typhoid and other water-borne infections by avoiding contaminated water and having good personal and food hygiene. Use only bottled drinking water and avoid unhygienic restaurants and food vendors. You must be particularly careful of shellfish, salads, unwashed fruit and vegetables and raw undercooked meat products. Avoid food that has been cooked and sitting in the open such as buffet food as this can attract infected flies.
As ever, vaccination is the best prevention. There are several different vaccines which can help to protect against typhoid including Typherix, Typhim VI (which are injections) and Vivotif (which come as tablets).
It is advised for people travelling to high risk places where Typhoid may occur and at Cosmopolitan Medical Clinic, our doctor or nurse will advise if you should consider having this vaccine. Women who are either pregnant or breastfeeding should discuss their itinerary and risk profile with our travel nurse.
Urgent medical attention is required if a person has contracted typhoid. Antibiotics are often required.
A single dose of injectable vaccine protects for 3 years. It is advised to have the vaccine at least 2 weeks prior to travel. It should be given at least 2 weeks before you travel, ideally one month before.
There are two vaccines that combine typhoid with hepatitis A for convenience: <strong>Hepatyrix</strong> and <strong>ViATIM</strong>.
The injectable typhoid vaccine Typhim is available for travellers over two years of age. It will provide protection for three years after which time a booster is required for continued protection.
The oral typhoid vaccine <strong>Vivotiff</strong> is available for travellers over six years of age, and is taken as 3 tablets over 5 days. It will provide protection for one year and a booster will be required after this date. Vivotiff not recommended, however, for people who have compromised immune systems as it is a live vaccine. The oral vaccine should be completed one week before you travel.